This paper examines the linkages between resource mobilization and social outcomes looking at institutions that play a key role with respect to resource mobilization and social spending in Uganda. It does so by looking at the following institutions: the Uganda Revenue Authority (URA), Kampala Capital City Authority (KCCA) and the Ministry of Health (MoH). The three institutions were selected because they are key organizations in either revenue collection or social service delivery or both and all three were targets of reforms – with varying degrees of success. The paper analyzes how these institutions compare with respect to political prioritization and in particular to what extent these institutions benefit from key institutional reforms and organizational capacity. The analysis reveals how varying political interests in and priorities of public institutions serve to explain differences in the delivery of public services and their organizational capacity. It offers illustrations to the bigger picture that only politically important organizations – those perceived to be key for the political survival of ruling elite – are well equipped with resources. The findings also stress the point that organizations that tend to perform better do so because they are politically prioritized and offered political protection.